ETF Deathwatch – October 2013

ETF Deathwatch for October 2013

#Ticker SymETF NameAge (mths)AUM (millions)3-mth Avg Daily $ Volume
1ACCUAdvisorShares Accuvest Global Opportunities20$19$182,498
2RRGRAdvisorShares Global Alpha & Beta15$1$229,356
3GIVEAdvisorShares Global Echo16$6$43,776
4FWDDAdvisorShares Madrona Domestic27$20$200,260
5FWDBAdvisorShares Madrona Global Bond27$22$128,478
6FWDIAdvisorShares Madrona International27$18$270,170
7MATHAdvisorShares Meidell Tactical Advantage27$11$81,944
8DBIZAdvisorShares Pring Turner Business Cycle9$5$251,678
9QEHAdvisorShares QAM Equity Hedge14$5$57,800
10AADRAdvisorShares WCM/BNY Mellon Foc Gr ADR38$7$229,483
11GSAXALPS/GS Momentum Bldr Asia x-Jpn Eq/US-T9$9$5,423
12GSGOALPS/GS Momentum Bldr Gr Mkts Eq/US-T9$8$63,441
13GSMAALPS/GS Momentum Builder Multi-Asset9$12$89,119
14GSRAALPS/GS Risk-Adjusted Return U.S. Large Cap9$12$3,042
15BXDBBarclays ETN+ S&P 500 1x Short B 2009 ETN46$3$29,029
16BXUCBarclays ETN+ S&P 500 2x Long C 2009 ETN46$25$4,046
17BXUBBarclays ETN+ S&P 500 3x Long B 2009 ETN46$4$15,474
18CAPEBarclays ETN+ Shiller CAPE ETN12$13$62,100
19ADRUBLDRS Europe 100 ADR131$15$57,876
20GCEClaymore CEF Index GS Connect ETN70$9$123,834
21GMTBColumbia Core Bond44$5$4,730
22GMMBColumbia Intermediate Municipal Bond44$5$55,756
23RPXColumbia Large Cap Growth48$2$64,879
24RWGColumbia Select Large Cap Growth48$12$37,987
25GVTColumbia Select Large Cap Value53$4$61,165
26CSLSCredit Suisse Long/Short Liquid ETN43$16$152,043
27CSMNCredit Suisse Market Neutral Glb Equity ETN24$3$161,536
28CSMBCredit Suisse Merger Arb Liquid 2x Mth ETN31$15$20,901
29CVOLC-Tracks Citi Volatility Index Total Ret ETN35$5$302,772
30FXCHCurrencyShares Chinese Renminbi Trust24$8$7,330
31FXSGCurrencyShares Singapore Dollar Trust8$8$24,605
32TDDdb X-trackers 2010 Target Date72$10$18,972
33TDXdb X-trackers In-Target Date72$12$9,888
34DBBRdb X-trackers MSCI Brazil Hedged Equity28$4$91,414
35DBGRdb X-trackers MSCI Germany Hedged Equity28$8$211,141
36KNOWDirexion All Cap Insider Sentiment22$5$25,846
37TYNSDirexion Daily 7-10 Year Treasury Bear 1x30$2$13,340
38TYDDirexion Daily 7-10 Year Treasury Bull 3x54$4$94,150
39MATLDirexion Daily Basic Materials Bull 3x28$2$88,243
40TOTSDirexion Daily Total Market Bear 1x28$3$59,304
41QQQEDirexion NASDAQ-100 Equal Weighted18$7$101,286
42VSPYDirexion S&P 500 DRRC Volatility Response21$5$56,164
43LGEMEGShares Basic Materials GEMS27$3$101,387
44CHXXEGShares China Infrastructure43$10$48,072
45GGEMEGShares Consumer Goods GEMS27$1$36,235
46VGEMEGShares Consumer Services GEMS27$2$17,454
47EMCREGShares Emerging Markets Core11$4$130,236
48EMTEGShares Emerging Markets Met&Mining52$7$112,426
49EMDDEGShares Emerging Mkts Domestic Demand14$3$142,465
50OGEMEGShares Energy GEMS52$8$139,909
51FGEMEGShares Financials GEMS49$4$132,831
52AGEMEGShares GEMS Composite50$11$147,961
53HGEMEGShares Health Care GEMS27$6$43,489
54INCOEGShares India Consumer26$4$140,820
55SCINEGShares India Small Cap39$17$143,439
56IGEMEGShares Industrials GEMS27$3$71,118
57QGEMEGShares Technology GEMS27$4$74,367
58TGEMEGShares Telecom GEMS27$4$44,111
59UGEMEGShares Utilities GEMS27$2$38,617
60FUEELEMENTS MLCX Biofuels ETN68$1$24,935
61GRUELEMENTS MLCX Grains Total Return ETN68$8$133,470
62EEHELEMENTS Spctrm LgCap US Sector Mo ETN74$3$2,565
63MLPSETRACS 1x Mthly Short Alerian MLP ETN36$5$29,179
64UBNETRACS CMCI Energy TR ETN66$3$180,221
65UBMETRACS CMCI Industrial Metals TR ETN66$5$86,948
66UBCETRACS CMCI Livestock TR ETN66$5$117,517
67OFFETRACS Fisher-Gartman Risk Off ETN22$11$74,325
68DVYLETRACS Mthly Pay 2x DJ Select Dividend ETN16$15$58,383
69OILZETRACS Oil Futures Contango ETN28$10$58,583
70SPGHETRACS S&P 500 Gold Hedged Idx ETN44$18$115,032
71MLPWETRACS Wells Fargo MLP Index ETN35$13$10,004
72FSGFactorShares 2X: Gold Bull/S&P500 Bear31$3$36,139
73FOLFactorShares 2X: Oil Bull/S&P500 Bear31$1$49,748
74FSEFactorShares 2X: S&P500 Bull/TBond Bear31$1$7,404
75FSUFactorShares 2X: S&P500 Bull/USD Bear31$3$7,909
76FSAFactorShares 2X: TBond Bull/S&P500 Bear31$1$502
77FAUSFirst Trust Australia AlphaDEX20$2$114,167
78BICKFirst Trust BICK42$19$47,114
79FBZFirst Trust Brazil AlphaDEX29$6$54,226
80VIXHFirst Trust CBOE S&P 500 VIX Tail Hedge13$4$30,729
81FCAFirst Trust China AlphaDEX29$6$66,471
82FDTSFirst Trust Dvlp Mkts x-US Sml Cap AlphaDEX19$2$80,341
83FHKFirst Trust Hong Kong AlphaDEX20$2$230,157
84FLMFirst Trust ISE Global Engineering & Const.60$17$33,762
85PLTMFirst Trust ISE Global Platinum43$12$77,309
86FMKFirst Trust Mega Cap AlphaDEX29$9$86,248
87FONEFirst Trust NASDAQ CEA Smartphone31$10$45,628
88GRIDFirst Trust NASDAQ Clean Edge Smart Grid46$12$39,790
89FYCFirst Trust Small Cap Growth AlphaDEX29$14$126,780
90FKOFirst Trust South Korea AlphaDEX29$4$66,430
91FTWFirst Trust Taiwan AlphaDEX20$2$99,968
92FVIFirst Trust Value Line Equity Allocation82$5$25,175
93QDYNFlexShares Quality Dividend Dynamic9$12$39,468
94BRAFGlobal X Brazil Financials38$2$11,151
95CHIEGlobal X China Energy46$4$10,788
96CHIIGlobal X China Industrial46$4$9,343
97CHIMGlobal X China Materials45$2$7,952
98ANDGlobal X FTSE Andean 4032$10$82,247
99ARGTGlobal X FTSE Argentina 2031$6$65,918
100JUNRGlobal X Junior Miners31$5$86,290
101MLPJGlobal X Junior MLP ETF (C-corp)8$12$67,364
102QQQCGlobal X NASDAQ China Technology46$8$199,364
103GGGGGlobal X Pure Gold Miners31$4$139,607
104GIYGuggenheim Enhanced Core Bond68$5$48,865
105EWEMGuggenheim MSCI Emrg Mkts Equal Weight34$10$42,399
106WREIGuggenheim Wilshire US REIT43$15$101,806
107HECOHuntington EcoLogical Strategy15$16$136,772
108HUSEHuntington US Equity Rotation Strategy14$13$239,751
109PGDiPath Asian & Gulf Currency Revaluation ETN63$1$5,877
110BWViPath CBOE S&P 500 BuyWrite Index ETN76$9$38,765
111JJUiPath DJ-UBS Aluminum ETN63$3$112,461
112JJEiPath DJ-UBS Energy ETN71$6$75,027
113LDiPath DJ-UBS Lead ETN63$3$79,323
114JJNiPath DJ-UBS Nickel ETN71$5$126,795
115PGMiPath DJ-UBS Platinum ETN63$18$97,469
116JJSiPath DJ-UBS Softs ETN63$7$18,863
117JJTiPath DJ-UBS Tin ETN63$4$65,198
118EROiPath EUR/USD Exchange Rate ETN77$6$25,942
119GBBiPath GBP/USD Exchange Rate ETN77$3$15,017
120AYTiPath GEMS Asia 8 ETN61$10$65,914
121JEMiPath GEMS Index ETN68$1$13,790
122GRNiPath Global Carbon ETN63$1$33,209
123IVOPiPath Inverse S&P 500 VIX S-T Futures ETN II24$2$4,087
124XXViPath Inverse S&P500 VIX S-T Futures ETN38$5$7,270
125JYNiPath JPY/USD Exchange Rate ETN77$2$10,558
126MFLAiPath Long Enh 2x MSCI EAFE Index ETN34$4$421
127EMLBiPath Long Enh 2x MSCI Emerging Mkts ETN34$3$1,784
128ROLAiPath Long Ext 3x Russell 1000 TR ETN34$12$9,091
129RTLAiPath Long Ext 3x Russell 2000 TR ETN34$10$14,753
130SFLAiPath Long Ext 3x S&P 500 TR Index ETN34$5$3,108
131DIRTiPath Pure Beta Agriculture ETN29$3$18,806
132FOILiPath Pure Beta Aluminum ETN29$1$13,070
133CHOCiPath Pure Beta Cocoa ETN29$7$88,767
134CAFEiPath Pure Beta Coffee ETN29$5$99,761
135CUPMiPath Pure Beta Copper ETN29$1$88,728
136CTNNiPath Pure Beta Cotton ETN29$2$10,273
137OLEMiPath Pure Beta Crude Oil ETN29$3$193,054
138ONGiPath Pure Beta Energy ETN29$3$487
139WEETiPath Pure Beta Grains ETN29$3$11,093
140HEVYiPath Pure Beta Industrial Metals ETN29$1$304
141LEDDiPath Pure Beta Lead ETN29$1$30,471
142LSTKiPath Pure Beta Livestock ETN29$2$1,783
143NINIiPath Pure Beta Nickel ETN29$3$51,500
144BLNGiPath Pure Beta Precious Metals ETN29$2$825
145SBViPath Pure Beta S&P GSCI-Weighted ETN29$1$2,985
146GRWNiPath Pure Beta Softs ETN29$1$91
147SGARiPath Pure Beta Sugar ETN29$2$14,585
148DCNGiPath Seasonal Natural Gas ETN29$8$27,743
149EMSAiPath Short Enh -2x MSCI Emerging Mkts ETN34$5$0
150DTYLiPath US Treasury 10-year Yield Bull ETN38$17$362,260
151DTULiPath US Treasury 2-year Yield Bull ETN38$4$35,514
152DFVSiPath US Treasury 5-Year Yield Bear ETN27$3$35,070
153DFVLiPath US Treasury 5-Year Yield Bull ETN27$0$2,982
154FLATiPath US Treasury Flattener ETN38$5$74,260
155DLBLiPath US Treasury Long Bond Yield Bull ETN38$2$8,719
156KROOIQ Australia Small Cap42$10$33,778
157IOILIQ Global Oil Small Cap29$2$47,436
158QLTCiShares B - Ca Rated Corporate Bond17$10$23,299
159QLTBiShares Baa - Ba Rated Corporate Bond17$20$36,526
160MONYiShares Financials Bond19$10$119,940
161NUCLiShares Global Nuclear Energy63$8$162,588
162FNIOiShares Industrial/Office Real Esate Capped77$13$53,871
163ENGNiShares Industrials Bond19$14$151,622
164AXDIiShares MSCI ACWI ex US Consumer Discr39$4$17,214
165AXSLiShares MSCI ACWI ex US Consumer Staples39$8$23,867
166AXENiShares MSCI ACWI ex US Energy39$5$53,375
167AXFNiShares MSCI ACWI ex US Financials44$4$76,373
168AXIDiShares MSCI ACWI ex US Industrials39$3$9,303
169AXITiShares MSCI ACWI ex US Info Technology39$3$16,834
170AXMTiShares MSCI ACWI ex US Materials39$2$9,499
171AXTEiShares MSCI ACWI ex US Telecom Services39$3$37,198
172AXUTiShares MSCI ACWI ex US Utilities39$7$15,057
173AAITiShares MSCI All Country Asia Info Tech20$4$56,405
174AXJSiShares MSCI All Country Asia x-Japan SmlCap20$6$45,210
175EWASiShares MSCI Australia Small-Cap20$2$20,655
176EWCSiShares MSCI Canada Small-Cap20$2$4,206
177EMFNiShares MSCI Emerging Markets Financials44$6$65,965
178EGRWiShares MSCI Emerging Markets Growth20$5$74,169
179EMMTiShares MSCI Emerging Markets Materials44$7$64,495
180EVALiShares MSCI Emerging Markets Value20$15$75,594
181EEMEiShares MSCI Emerging Mkts EMEA ($0 Fid)20$5$68,600
182EMDIiShares MSCI Emrg Mkts Cons Discretionary20$3$50,823
183EMEYiShares MSCI Emrg Mkts Energy Sector20$2$587,257
184FEFNiShares MSCI Far East Financials44$6$45,337
185EFNLiShares MSCI Finland Capped20$9$133,179
186FILLiShares MSCI Global Energy Prdcrs ($0 Fid)20$5$140,780
187SLVPiShares MSCI Global Silver Miners20$6$167,144
188EWHSiShares MSCI Hong Kong Small-Cap21$6$69,282
189SMINiShares MSCI India Small-Cap20$3$14,741
190EWUSiShares MSCI United Kingdom Small-Cap20$13$71,302
191TZDiShares Target Date 201059$9$59,786
192TZOiShares Target Date 203559$20$74,533
193TZWiShares Target Date 204525$5$108,635
194TZYiShares Target Date 205025$6$47,126
195TGRiShares Target Date Retirement Income59$11$255,509
196DSXJJPM Qtrly Dbl Short US 10-Yr Treas Fut ETN36$8$15,607
197DSTJJPM Qtrly Dbl Short US Long Treas Fut ETN36$8$14,702
198JFTKEYnotes FT Enhanced 130/30 Large Cap ETN64$4$1,884
199COLXMarket Vectors Colombia31$4$106,321
200URRMarket Vectors Double Long Euro ETN65$1$70,352
201EVXMarket Vectors Environmental Services84$19$29,286
202ANGLMarket Vectors Fallen Angel High Yield Bond18$16$85,642
203GERJMarket Vectors Germany Small-Cap30$3$40,903
204LATMMarket Vectors Latin America Small-Cap42$9$46,156
205CHLCMarket Vectors Renminbi Bond24$5$266,998
206BARLMorgan Stanley S&P 500 Crude Oil ETN27$15$4,503
207TRSYPIMCO Broad U.S. Treasury Index35$13$14,514
208BUNDPIMCO Germany Bond Index23$3$2,876
209BUNTPowerShares DB 3x German Bund Futures ETN30$12$117,099
210ITLTPowerShares DB 3x Italian T-Bond Fut. ETN30$11$137,446
211JGBTPowerShares DB 3x Japanese G-Bd Fut ETN30$5$15,012
212LBNDPowerShares DB 3x Long 25+ Treas ETN39$23$62,245
213UUPTPowerShares DB 3x Long USD Idx Fut ETN28$3$201,876
214UDNTPowerShares DB 3x Short USD Idx Futures ETN28$2$97,097
215AGAPowerShares DB Agriculture Dbl Short ETN66$4$79,862
216AGFPowerShares DB Agriculture Long ETN66$4$104,969
217ADZPowerShares DB Agriculture Short ETN66$2$778
218BDDPowerShares DB Base Metals Dbl Long ETN63$3$35,845
219BOMPowerShares DB Base Metals Dbl Sh ETN63$4$63,007
220BDGPowerShares DB Base Metals Long ETN64$1$18,967
221BOSPowerShares DB Base Metals Short ETN63$3$28,514
222DYYPowerShares DB Commodity Dbl Long ETN65$6$31,572
223DEEPowerShares DB Commodity Dbl Short ETN65$3$76,796
224DPUPowerShares DB Commodity Long ETN65$3$69,630
225DDPPowerShares DB Commodity Short ETN65$5$38,469
226OLOPowerShares DB Crude Oil Long ETN63$8$104,803
227SZOPowerShares DB Crude Oil Short ETN63$9$166,127
228BUNLPowerShares DB German Bund Futures ETN30$8$91,870
229ITLYPowerShares DB Italian T-Bond Futures ETN30$9$37,727
230JGBLPowerShares DB Japanese G-Bd Fut ETN30$5$61,426
231DEFLPowerShares DB US Deflation ETN22$4$24,282
232INFLPowerShares DB US Inflation ETN22$4$5,381
233PIQPowerShares Dynamic Magniquant84$19$66,102
234PSIPowerShares Dynamic Semiconductors99$17$45,805
235PXMCPowerShares Fundamental Pure Mid Core82$25$69,789
236PXSCPowerShares Fundamental Pure Small Core82$15$71,198
237KBWCPowerShares KBW Capital Markets23$9$53,058
238KBWXPowerShares KBW International Financial34$2$32,052
239EEHBPowerShares S&P Emerging Mkts High Beta19$4$422,187
240IDHBPowerShares S&P Intl Developed High Beta19$6$133,467
241IDHQPowerShares S&P Intl Developed High Quality76$21$75,080
242RINFProShares 30 Year TIPS/TSY Spread21$4$27,652
243GGOVProShares German Sovereign/Sub-Sovereign20$4$102,500
244PEXProShares Global Listed Private Equity7$4$7,004
245MRGRProShares Merger10$4$17,516
246FINFProShares Short 30 Year TIPS/TSY Spread21$4$2,260
247SBMProShares Short Basic Materials43$3$66,063
248EUFXProShares Short Euro15$7$96,292
249IGSProShares Short Investment Grade Corporate30$3$132,200
250KRSProShares Short KBW Regional Banking41$2$94,979
251DDGProShares Short Oil & Gas64$4$31,005
252GDAYProShares Ultra Australian Dollar14$3$26,719
253UCDProShares Ultra DJ-UBS Commodity58$4$91,341
254ULEProShares Ultra Euro58$3$132,772
255UJBProShares Ultra High Yield30$3$192,714
256IGUProShares Ultra Investment Grade Corporate30$3$145,419
257EFOProShares Ultra MSCI EAFE52$10$99,252
258UMXProShares Ultra MSCI Mexico Capped IMI41$4$190,661
259UXJProShares Ultra MSCI Pacific Ex-Japan41$2$50,632
260UKWProShares Ultra Russell Midcap Growth79$12$32,616
261UVUProShares Ultra Russell Midcap Value79$10$47,378
262UKFProShares Ultra Russell1000 Growth79$14$24,472
263UVGProShares Ultra Russell1000 Value79$8$24,459
264UVTProShares Ultra Russell2000 Value79$11$51,526
265UWCProShares Ultra Russell300051$3$22,910
266LTLProShares Ultra Telecommunications66$6$29,274
267YCLProShares Ultra Yen58$3$114,294
268UINFProShares UltraPro 10 Year TIPS/TSY Spread20$2$1,346
269SINFProShares UltraPro Short 10yr TIPS/TSY Sprd20$2$9,860
270FINZProShares UltraPro Short Financials15$2$20,023
271TBZProShares UltraShort 3-7 Year Treasury30$4$28,233
272SZKProShares UltraShort Consumer Goods80$5$56,542
273SCCProShares UltraShort Consumer Services80$5$23,317
274CMDProShares UltraShort DJ-UBS Commodity58$3$14,037
275RXDProShares UltraShort Healthcare80$3$246,784
276SIJProShares UltraShort Industrials80$4$210,598
277SMKProShares UltraShort MSCI Mexico Capped IMI51$1$15,118
278JPXProShares UltraShort MSCI Pacific ex-Japan51$1$8,921
279SDKProShares UltraShort Russell Midcap Growth79$1$30,038
280SJLProShares UltraShort Russell Midcap Value79$1$2,313
281SFKProShares UltraShort Russell1000 Growth79$4$31,486
282SJFProShares UltraShort Russell1000 Value79$1$4,597
283SKKProShares UltraShort Russell2000 Growth79$4$53,040
284SJHProShares UltraShort Russell2000 Value79$2$22,116
285TWQProShares UltraShort Russell300051$1$159,704
286TLLProShares UltraShort Telecom66$1$158,620
287SDPProShares UltraShort Utilities80$4$236,723
288COBOProShares USD Covered Bond16$6$54,697
289GEMSPureFunds ISE Diamonds/Gemstone10$1$85,612
290SILJPureFunds ISE Junior Silver10$2$50,497
291MSXXPureFunds ISE Mining Service10$1$90,927
292BTALQuantShares U.S. Market Neutral Anti-Beta25$4$80,085
293MOMQuantShares U.S. Market Neutral Momentum25$1$248,336
294SIZQuantShares U.S. Market Neutral Size25$1$1,125
295CHEPQuantShares U.S. Market Neutral Value25$1$189,108
296DRGSRBS Global Big Pharma ETN23$6$45,802
297TWTIRBS Oil Trendpilot ETN25$6$39,140
298RGRARBS Rogers Enhanced Agriculture ETN10$9$15,610
299RGRERBS Rogers Enhanced Energy ETN10$4$1,089
300RGRIRBS Rogers Enhanced Industrial Metals ETN10$6$9,642
301RGRPRBS Rogers Enhanced Precious Metals ETN10$3$3,465
302ALTLRBS US Large Cap Alternator ETN13$5$119,485
303RTRRevenueShares ADR58$23$46,936
304RWVRevenueShares Navellier Overall A-10056$7$23,503
305ONEFRussell Equity41$8$110,641
306SSTSPDR Barclays Short Term Treasury22$21$285,624
307EMCDSPDR BofA Merrill Lynch Emg Mkts Corp Bond15$15$243,440
309EMFTSPDR MSCI EM 5019$2$68,408
310MMTMSPDR S&P 1500 Momentum Tilt11$11$20,422
311VLUSPDR S&P 1500 Value Tilt11$7$54,783
312IPWSPDR S&P International Energy62$13$98,614
313IPNSPDR S&P International Industrial62$14$153,877
314IRVSPDR S&P International Materials62$9$80,551
315IPKSPDR S&P International Technology62$12$125,919
316KMESPDR S&P Mortgage Finance53$8$40,816
317GMFSSPDR S&P Small Cap Emerging Asia Pacific21$2$19,995
318XSWSPDR S&P Software & Services24$21$219,072
319XTLSPDR S&P Telecom32$8$70,555
320TAGSTeucrium Agricultural18$2$7,309
321NAGSTeucrium Natural Gas32$3$52,484
322CANETeucrium Sugar24$3$17,689
323CRUDTeucrium WTI Crude Oil31$2$46,231
324USAGUnited States Agriculture18$2$16,550
325CPERUnited States Copper23$2$57,111
326USMIUnited States Metals15$2$52,252
327IPLTVelocityShares 2x Inverse Platinum ETN23$3$3,875
328LPLTVelocityShares 2x Long Platinum ETN23$2$52,562
329DOILVelocityShares 3x Inverse Brent Crude ETN20$1$8,296
330UOILVelocityShares 3x Long Brent Crude ETN20$1$30,723
331UWTIVelocityShares 3x Long Crude ETN20$1$174,267
332TVIZVelocityShares Daily 2x VIX Med-Term ETN34$3$250,847
333VIIZVelocityShares VIX Medium-Term ETN34$1$441,973
334CCXEWisdomTree Commodity Country Equity84$23$49,594
335CCXWisdomTree Commodity Currency36$16$85,542
336EUWisdomTree Euro Debt65$4$179,041
337GLCBWisdomTree Global Corporate Bond8$15$32,676
338RRFWisdomTree Global Real Return27$4$7,136
339YYYYieldShares High Income ETF16$6$162,460
Data sources:  Daily prices and volume of individual ETPs from Norgate Premium Data.  All other information compiled by Invest With An Edge from sources believed to reliable.

Additional resources:

Disclosure covering writer, editor, and publisher: No positions in any of the securities mentioned.  No positions in any of the companies or ETF sponsors mentioned.  No income, revenue, or other compensation (either directly or indirectly) received from, or on behalf of, any of the companies or ETF sponsors mentioned.